Professor Katayun Barmak
Professor of Materials Science and Engineering
Ph.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Department of Materials Science and Engineering
Carnegie Mellon University
5000 Forbes Avenue
Roberts Engineering Hall 143
Pittsburgh, PA 15213
Phone: (412) 268-4380
Fax: (412) 268-3113
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Dr. Katayun Barmak obtained her B.A. (First Class Hons.) and M.A. degrees
in Natural Sciences, Metallurgy and Materials Science from the University of
Cambridge, England in 1983 and 1987, respectively. She completed her M.S. in
Metallurgy and Ph.D. in Materials Science at the Massachusetts Institute of
Technology in 1985 and 1989, respectively. During her doctoral work she was
a recipient of an AT&T Foundation Fellowship. Prior to her appointment
to the Faculty at Lehigh in 1992, Dr. Barmak spent three years at IBM T.J.
Watson Research Center and IBM East Fishkill development laboratory working
on materials, structures and processes for advanced generations of field effect
and bipolar junction transistors. She joined the Department of Materials Science
and Engineering at Carnegie Mellon University in 1999 and was promoted to the
rank of Full Professor in 2002. Dr. Barmak received the National Young Investigator
in 1994 and a Deutscheforschunggemeinschaft Fellowship the same year. She was
one of four Technical Chairs of the Materials Research Society Meeting in Spring
1999. She was a Visiting Scientist at the IBM T. J. Watson Research Center
1998-2004. She is an Associate Editor of the Journal of Electronic Materials.
Professor Barmak’s research addresses the relationship of processing
and structure (crystal structure and microstructure) to electrical and magnetic
properties of metal films. Metal films play an important role in the advance
of many modern technologies such as integrated circuits, information storage
systems, displays, sensors and coatings. They also provide model systems for
the study of phenomena that are not easily accessible in bulk systems.
Barmak is a member of the Materials Research Science and Engineering Center
and aims to develop a transmission electron microscopy based automated orientation
imaging technique that can be applied to the study of nanostructured materials.
Her group has been an internationally recognized group in the use of differential
scanning calorimetry for the study solid state reactions and phase transformations
in thin films.
The engineering of phase transformations continues to be key to successful
implementation of metals and alloys in micro/nanoscale structures. Whether
the promotion or inhibition of a solid state reaction or phase transformation
is the desired end for a given application, the quantification of the
associated kinetics (e.g., rate) and thermodynamics (e.g., enthalpy)
allows for a deeper fundamental understanding and, in principle, more rapid
engineering of the transformation. We are a leading group in the use of conventional
differential scanning calorimetry for the study of phase transformations in
a broad range of technological and model thin film systems.
The microstructure of polycrystalline systems is known to have a profound
effect on their electrical and magnetic properties, and therefore quantitative
stereological analysis of microstructures is important. Proper characterization
includes information not only about the size, shape and orientation of
constituent grains, but also the geometry and crystallography of the
associated grain boundaries. In addition to experimental studies of thin film
microstructures, it is of interest to develop predictive models of microstructure
evolution that address nucleation and growth to coalescence followed by grain
growth (coarsening). Our aim is for these models to incorporate experimentally
measured materials properties, such as grain boundary energy and mobility,
and for the simulated microstructures to be validated against experimentally
characterized microstructures. To this end, the statistical properties of simulated
grain structures are compared with those for experimental grain structures;
the latter obtained via semi-automated and automated techniques developed in
For the study of thin film phase transformations and microstructures, we
use a wide variety of experimental processing and characterization techniques
such as sputter deposition, electrodeposition, microfabrication, differential
scanning calorimetry, conventional and synchrotron x-ray diffraction for phase
identification and texture analysis, scanning and transmission electron microscopy
and orientation imaging microscopy. Close collaborations with industry and
national laboratories give students access to expertise, instrumentation and
techniques not available in our laboratory.
|Integrated circuit technology nodes below 100
nm require careful engineering of metals used as interconnections, as contacts
to the source, drain and gate of the metal oxide semiconductor field effect
transistor (MOSFTET), etc. The engineering of these metal components requires
detailed understanding of the evolution of microstructure and/or the mechanisms
and paths of solid state reactions and transformations at the nanoscale.
The impact of surfaces and grain boundaries on properties and performance
of these nanoscale metals is also of great importance. The materials of
interest include Al, Cu and Cu alloys, silicides and aluminides. The images
show grain growth in Cu films.
T. Sun, B. Yao, A. Warren, V.
Kumar, S. Roberts, K. Barmak, and K. R. Coffey, “Classical size effect
in oxide-encapsulated Cu thin films: Impact of grain boundaries versus surfaces
on resistivity”, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 26, 605-609 (2008).
D. C. Berry, K. Barmak, “Time-temperature-transformation diagrams for
the A1 to L1 0 phase transformation in FePt and FeCuPt thin films”, J.
Appl. Phys. 101, 014905-1:14 (2007).
(Critical Review) K. Barmak, C. Cabral, Jr., J. M. E. Harper, K. P.
Rodbell, “On the use of alloying elements for Cu interconnect applications”,
J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 24, 2485-2498 (2006).
K. Barmak, W. E. Archibald, J. Kim. C.-S. Kim, A. D. Rollett, G. S. Rohrer,
S. Ta’asan, D. Kinderlehrer, “Grain boundary energy and grain growth
in highly-textured Al films and foils: Experiment and Simulation”, Materials
Science Forum495-497, 1255-1260 (2005).
K. Barmak, A. Gungor, A. D. Rollett, C. Cabral, Jr., and J. M. E. Harper, “Texture
of Cu and dilute binary Cu-alloy films: Impact of annealing and solute
Sci. in Semicon. Processing 6, 175-184 (2003).